This is a quick way of how to backup and restore your database.
TO backup issue this command
$ mysqldump -u root -p[root_password] [database_name] > backupfle.sql
To restore issue this command
$ mysql -u root -p[root_password] [database_name] < backupfile.sql
Notice > and < operators.
I usually put my database dumpfile in the database directory of mysql. For example for centos /var/lib/mysql so that the backed up file and restore database are in the same directory